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The Thomasites, before and after

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THE THOMASITES, BEFORE AND AFTER
Guillermo Gómez Rivera

They were called thus not due to St. Thomas of Aquinas but because they came in a cattle cargo vessel called the “S/S Thomas”.

And they came to teach English as part of the “policy of attraction” after the 1898 República de Filipinas was blown up to smithereens by a superior invading military force.

It was obvious that the main content of the so-called policy of attraction was to compulsorily impose English as the only medium of instruction. Benevolent assimilation was to be advanced by “education in English”. If no working knowledge of English was acquired by the native Filipinos, education was unilaterally deemed not to have taken place among them. Without English, a Filipino is deemed illiterate even if he can correctly write and speak in Tagalog or any of his major native languages.

Indeed, before the benevolent Thomasites did come, native children had for their English teachers the McKinley soldiers that claimed to educate “them Injuns with the crank and the kragg”. This claim dovetailed the Mckinleyan motto “to Christianize, to educate, and to uplift” the Filipino.

But were the Filipinos of the 1900s who were already drinking real potable water; who knew what cheap electricity and silk was; who called friends by note, postcard, phone and telegram, and who grandly celebrated Christmas and Lent, really asking the Thomasites to “educate” them in the English language?

An American linguist of the time, Mary I. Bresnahan, answered that question in the following manner:

“In any case, it continues to be speculative if the Filipino’s purported desire to learn English was genuine or not. Documents tell us about Filipinos trembling with fear inside their huts built on stilts as they expected the intrusion of the cruel Americans reputed to be blood thirsty giants bent on killing even the most trusting among them. Unsure about the real motives of the invaders, the Filipinos did what they thought would please the Americans the most. And that was to learn their language, — English.” (see “The Americanization of the Philippines, The Imposition of English during the 1898-1901 Period” by Alfonso L García Martínez, Law College of Puerto Rico, Vol. 43, pages 237 to 270, May 1982).

To change this general perception, the so-called Thomasites came and were accepted.

Even a secondary Spanish school like Colegio de San Juan de Letrán wrote a textbook to teach the English language as early as 1902. This was a help to the beleaguered Thomasites. The book was entitled Mañga Onang Turô sa Uicang Inglés written by Tagalog Professor P. Ulpiano Herrero and Spanish Dominican P. Francisco García. (Imprenta UST, Manila, 1902). In this book of 482 pages English language lessons were effectively explained in both the Tagalog and Spanish languages.

But the pro-English language efforts of the Thomasites appeared nil. Too much was expected of them by the American authorities themselves.

By 1916, their hard work was criticized in a report prepared by Henry Ford to President Woodrow Wilson. Wrote Mr. Ford:

“There is, however, another aspect in this case which should be considered. This aspect became evident to me as I traveled through the islands, using ordinary transportation and mixing with all classes of people under all conditions. Although, as based on the school statistics, it is said that more Filipinos speak English than any other language, no one can be in agreement with this declaration if they base their assessment on what they hear on the testimony of their hearing… Spanish is everywhere the language of business and social intercourse… in order for anyone to obtain prompt service from anyone, Spanish turns out to be more useful than English… and outside of Manila it is almost indispensable. The Americans who travel around all the islands customarily use it.” (The Ford Report of 1916. Chapter 3. The Use of English, pp. 365-366.)

What had appeared to be a big deception was the earlier report of Director of Instruction David P. Barrows which said:

“It is to be noted that with the increased study and use of English, there has been an increased study of Spanish. I think it is a fact that many more people in these islands have a knowledge of Spanish now than they did when the American Occupation occurred” (The 1908 School Report, p. 96).”

“Spanish continues to be the most prominent and important language spoken in political, journalistic and commercial circles. English has, therefore, active rivals as the language of trade and instruction. It is equally probable that the adult population has lost interest in learning English. I believe it is a fact that many more people now know the Spanish language than when the Americans sailed for these islands and their occupation took place… The customary prerequisite for dispatchers is for them to know English and Spanish. Through the great upsurge in numbers and circulation of newspapers and publications, there is much more reading matter in Spanish than before… (Op. Sit. p.9)

But the Thomasites plodded onward. Upon their shoulders was thrown what was thought of as the great task to make Filipinos speak English. This thought was, however, not shared by Filipino educators born out of the Katipunan and the Primera República’s Universidad Literaria like Dr. Leon María Guerrero and Don Enrique Mendiola, co-founders of the Liceo de Manila, Librada Avelino, founder of the Centro Escolar de Señoritas, Mariano Jocson, founder of the Colegio de Manila, Las Maestras Avanceña and Don Manuel Locsín, founders of the Instituto de Molo, Iloilo, Doña Florentina Tan Villanueva, foundress of the Escuela de Cebú, and Gran Maestra Rosa Sevilla de Alvero founder of the Instituto de Mujeres.

These native educators were for the use of Spanish and Tagalog, with Visayan and Ilocano, as media of national education. They viewed English as “a language of economic conquest”. (See: The Life of Librada Avelino, Bilingual edition in Spanish and English, by Francisco Varona and Pedro de la Llana, Vera & Sons, Publishing Co., 1935, Manila, p.241).

The Thomasites were not only hampered in their task by native resistance, albeit passive. They were also made to know, outright, that English would never become the language of the Filipino masses because it is not written as it is spoken in the same manner that the native languages are done. The century-old Tagalog phrase “mahirap ispiliñgin” (difficult to spell) attests to this reality. Mr. Henry Ford himself refers to this fact when he wrote in his mentioned report the following:

“The use of Spanish as an official language has been extended to January 1, 1920. Its general use seems to be spreading. Natives acquiring it learn it as a living speech. Everywhere they hear it spoken by leading people of the community and their ears are trained to its pronunciation. On the other hand, they (the natives) are practically without phonic standards in acquiring English and the result is that they learn it as a book language rather than as a living speech. “(P.368, Historical Bulletin. Ford Report on the Philippine Situation).

The italicized part is true up to the present time. More so when many children, out of economic hardship brought about by a balooning foreign debt and the increased price of gasoline, electricity and potable water, can not attend primary and secondary schooling. That must be why English is fast becoming a minority language in these islands today. The government and the private schools do not have enough money to pay teachers a truly living wage. And the English speaking elite, as well as the politicians, find themselves forced to campaign in Tagalog, or Filipino, for votes. In other words, the Filipino language ecology has started to self-destruct with the de-emphasis of Spanish, the link between English and Tagalog, Bisayà and Ilocano.

But the Thomasites could not then go on with their task to teach English. The Philippines was not a Tabula Rasa with regard to language. There already was an existing Philippine language ecology with Spanish as its nucleus. The aim to therefore replace Spanish with English as the first step to also replace Tagalog (the actual basis of Filipino or Pilipino) along with Ilocano, Cebuano, and Hiligaynón, could not take off with success. And this was the case because the imposition of English was actually going against an existing language ecology that would later get back at even the English language, as it is now starting to happen.

But the early legislative Commissions that ruled the Islands were there to really impose English no matter the cost. And to do so, some draconian measures were inevitably, albeit tyrannically, implemented to help the Thomasites go about their linguistic task. The same Ford Report gives us a glimpse of these measures that came in the form of hard laws.

“Act No. 190 of the Commission (then the legislature) provided that English must become the official language of all courts and their records after January 1, 1906… Act No. 1427 extended the time to January 1, 1911… Act No. 1946 again extended the time to January 1, 1913.” (Op. cit. p. 368).

In short, it was the American WASP regime that started the idea about a language, whether English, Spanish or Tagalog, that must be taught by force of law in order to sink it in upon the psyche of the Filipino. This precedent glaringly belies the much later argument that “the compulsory teaching of Spanish by legislation would not succeed because of its obligatory nature”.

But before January 1, 1913 came, Executive Order No. 44, issued on August 8, 1912, had to allow Spanish to continue as an official language out of sheer necessity. In view of this situation Henry Ford, sounding almost exasperated, concluded that:

“The practical impossibility of substituting Spanish for English in court proceedings and in municipal government was such that even if English was imposed as the Official Language on January 1, 1913, Spanish would still continue in use.” (Op. Cit. p. 369)

Another law was enacted by the Filipino dominated National Assembly on February 11, 1913 further extending the use of Spanish up to 1920. Of this law, Henry Ford reported:

“There is no present prospect that Spanish can be superseded any more readily in 1920 than heretofore. And from all appearances, its place as an official language is securely established.” (Op. Cit. pp. 368-369).

By 1925 a so-called “Monroe Commission” came to the islands to assess the educational system started in English by the Thomasites. With regard the advance of English, this commission concluded:

“Upon leaving school, more than 99% of Filipinos will not speak English in their homes. Possibly, only 10% to 15% of the next generation will be able to use this language in their occupations. In fact, it will only be the government employees, and the professionals, who might make use of English.”

Upon the publication of this result, Modesto Reyes, a Filipino writer in Spanish, publisher and editor of the Rizalist newspaper-magazine ISAGANI, commented that “with the same funding and efforts spent, with the same system and other modern means of instruction now employed in the obligatory instruction of English, if Spanish were instead taught to Filipinos, the proportion of modernly educated Filipinos would have been greater than the number produced with English as the medium of education. Now, because of this failure with English, we have no other just and natural alternative but to adopt Tagalog as the national and the official language.”

And Modesto Reyes bravely added: “In our humble opinion, the Philippines already had a national and official language in Spanish when it formed part of Spain. And we adopted Spanish as our own language because we were in fact Spanish citizens. But came the Americans and without first turning us into American citizens, they just went on forcing us to adopt their language through an educational system paid for by our own tax money.” ISAGANI, P.24, Year 1, No. 5, June 1925.)

The shelling and bombing of Manila in World War Two, as provoked by the landing of the American liberation forces, killed many Filipinos. Among them was a big number of Spanish speakers and writers. And the entry of the liberating American forces suddenly made English a necessary tool of communication for grateful Filipinos who came to adore the G.I. Joe with his chocolates and his pampams.

But right after the grant of the July 4, 1946 independence from the U.S.A. the Soto, Magalona, and Cuenco laws were unanimously approved by a still largely Spanish-speaking legislature. Spanish was made a regular subject of the collegiate curricula. Because the older Spanish-speaking generations of Filipinos were still alive, this language continued, in the words of Henry Ford, “as a living language”.

It is because of this that the old U.S, WASP view of Spanish as a threat to English in the Philippines was resurrected. A black propaganda about Spanish being “a dead and irrelevant language” was launched. Parents and students were brainwashed to believe that having Spanish as a 12 unit course was an economic burden. (It was previously with 24 units because the other 12 were for the study of Filipino writings in this language).

With the 1987 Cory Constitution in place, the supposed Spanish threat to the advance of English was at last eliminated from both the official and the educational spheres. Article XIV, Section 7, Paragraph 7 of the Cory 1987 constitution provides that “Spanish and Arabic shall be taught on an optional and voluntary basis”. But while CHED refuses to organize a 12-unit foreign language course for the college curricula, neither Spanish nor Arabic, nor any other foreign language can become a regular subject in the tertiary curricula of this country. But the President of the Republic can remedy the deliberate violation of this constitutional provision by executively ordering CHED and DECS to organize unit accredited foreign language courses.

But will she?

After one hundred years since the Thomasites landed all that was achieved is the replacement of Spanish as the country’s official language. Aside from this we have the almost secret policy to force into phonetic Tagalog the unphonetic base of English, as pointed out by Henry Ford. This is now being done by ramming the entire English alphabet into Tagalog and into almost all the other major native languages by a DECS circular without any clear objection from the Commission on Filipino.

What could be tragic and funny is that this deliberate alphabetical cross-breeding is resulting into a pidgin called Taglish that may just further deteriorate the common use of English as it definitely and officially damages what used to be standard Tagalog or Filipino.

But the Filipino is said to be profitably entering the global village, albeit as a derided DH and as an entertainer, with English, or Taglish. This slave-like situation of Filipino migrant workers demeans all the previous efforts of the Thomasites. Filipinos today are being “educated” with compulsory English by the tyranny of the Jones law of 1916, the country’s foreign debt and the present Philippine Constitution, just to end up as virtual slaves and prostitutes in other countries that neither have English as their language.

Is this why the teaching of another international languages like Spanish is deliberately being withheld by the U.S. WASP dominated Philippine government of today?.

Is this why a foreign language course, with credits in units in the college curricula, can not be included by the now controversial Philippine Commission on Higher Education (CHED) so that either Mandarin, Spanish and Arabic may be placed within the reach of today’s Filipino student?

Is language tyranny a part of the legacy of the Thomasites?

(originally published in eManila.com)

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17 responses »

  1. The Filipinos actually don’t care about Spanish. They’re even happy to let it die.

    For them, it would be like Spanish having Arabic as official language.

    The Spanish teachers will have a hard time reviving it here. It doesn’t even help that Filipinos view Spaniards as unkind snobs, haughty, and sneering lazy heirs of their parents’ wealth. They still view it as the social climber’s, pauper’s and oppressor’s language.

    Culturally, the hatred of Filipinos towards Spaniards is ingrained. Though there were some cultural influences from Spain and America which will make them “brothers or cousins”, the Filipinos disparage numerous Spanish influences and count them as evil.
    They would rather have Malay and Indonesian culture, which is definitely closer to Filipinos than the Eastern Asians or the Spanish or Americans.

    They will have to work twice as hard as the English teacher in the Philippines and it would be a thankless job for them in such a way that they would miserably fail.
    Filipinos would practically use English or another East Asian language like Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and possibly, Vietnamese.

    Even Philippines is struggling with the Tagalog language.
    They could have used Malay instead of Tagalog as an official language so that Tagalogs and Cebuanos will not have to fight over language.
    Tagalog and Cebuano in the Philippines must have the role of Javanese and Balinese in Indonesia.

    This is a bleak picture for the Spanish teacher in the Philippines in which they must be prepared. They must still teach, even with these given conditions.

    Reply
  2. Truth is, when Filipinos go to Spain (or any other Spanish-speaking country), they learn Spanish very fast and effortlessly. In a few months they can speak Spanish fluently.

    A Chinese, Malay or Indonesian would have to invest many years to achieve the same level and in many cases they never do, no matter how long they have lived there. I know of quite a few Chinese, for example, who after living over a decade in Madrid, are still unable to construct a complete sentence of more than 5 words without making a pronunciation and/or grammar mistake.

    Reply
    • Truth be told, the Filipino has a harder time with Spanish grammar. Spanish grammar is completely different from Philippine Austronesian grammar. Though Tagalog and Spanish look similar through loanwords and the usage of the Latin alphabet, they are nothing alike and have little to nothing in common. Chances are the Filipinos you have met have exposed themselves to the language first before they learned Spanish. They know that it’s a foreign country with different language and traditions.

      Loanwords are present, but these only make language learning superficially easy. False friends do confuse the speaker.
      Include false friends in this factor. Tagalog (an Austronesian language from the Philippines) word “rigodon” will also mean turncoating or switching allegiance or political parties, synonymous to another term “balimbing” ( in Spanish, « la carambola » an astringent fruit, due to it having many sides and due to its sides being switchable). In Spanish, I think « la rigodón(e) » means some kind of dance. This is the meaning Tagalog still shares with Spanish, though the first definition is now more commonly used.

      Where Austronesian languages conjugate by aspect, your language conjugates through person and tense.
      Tagalog has a case marking system placed before the nouns and a focus system of verbs with a lot of infixes, which allows a more flexible word order.
      Spanish hides the subject through a conjugated verb while Tagalog displays both subject and object.
      Spanish has respectful pronouns while Tagalog has particles for respect.

      I just wonder How Italians and Spaniards fare in learning Arabic comparing each other?

      Reply
      • Grammar is completely different, but is not that hard to learn. German or Dutch for example are far more difficult.

        Spanish is one of the easiest languages to learn, and Filipinos who can speak it today, do it fairly well, better than many other nationalities, except perhaps for Italians or Portuguese.

        Spanish-speaking people have no trouble communicating to Italians (or Portuguese). We don’t even have to switch languages. If I speak Spanish slow and clear, they’ll understand most of what I say, and viceversa. Not so between Italian and Portuguese though. Written is even easier. As a Spanish you can even figure out written French and some English.

        Arabic is a completely different language, I understand not even 1% spoken. 0% written.

        Reply
      • Your response is good…though English speakers can learn German and Dutch through some older English grammar rules and certain logical rules.

        In many Internet anecdotes, I know that Spanish can be used in Italy and Italian can be used in Spain. This makes me conclude that Italian and Spanish are partially intelligible.
        Though the lexical similarity of Portuguese makes it closer to Spanish, the pronunciation makes it harder for the Spanish to understand. A Galician and many other Spaniards will have an easier time understanding Brazilian Portuguese for their phonologies are rather closer to each other than they are with Continental Portuguese.

        If we use grammar and lexical similarity as basis for mutual intelligibility, French will be rather close to Italian while Portuguese will be closer to Spanish.
        However, if we include phonology in this factor and the arrangement of the most basic words, Italian will be the most understandable language for the Spaniards.

        Though Celts, Phoenicians, Greeks and Latins inhabited both Spain and Italy, Basques stay in Spain, Italy had the Etruscans, and Gothic and Arabic influenced both Italian and Spanish, the Latin and Greek culture prevailed. In your stay in the Philippines, in your opinion, which culture prevails?

        Reply
  3. Que Viva Fipilinas hispana y de lengua española !

    Reply
  4. There are no such “logical” rules in German, sorry to say, although Germans will tell you that there are, although not all. Read “The Awful German Language” by Mark Twain, a satirical but highly accurate explanation of the difficulty of the language.
    Ever heard the saying “Life is too short to learn German”?
    Dutch does not fare much better neither.

    Agreed, Brazilian Portuguese is friendlier to the ear, but if you try, as a Spanish speaker, you can understand people in Portugal, even the ones from rural parts in Alentejo :) But you have to try, many people don’t. On the other hand Portuguese understand Spanish perfect. They also watch a lot of Spanish TV and that sure helps.

    Filipino culture is uniquely Filipino. By that I mean a unique mix of Malay, Latin and additions from Asia, US and Pacific Islands.

    Reply
  5. The rules only become logical when we think in terms of the language.

    About that saying “Life is too short to learn German,” I think it will not deter the language learner to learn it if he really wants to learn it.

    Chavacano speakers, Cebuanos and Ilonggos have positive attitudes on learning Spanish. With the Tagalogs and Ilocanos, I don’t know how willing they are. However, the Manuvu, Ifugao, Mangyan and Tausug seem less likely to learn that language.

    Your answer is diplomatic at best. It shows that you also know some of our history.

    Reply
  6. As you have yourself (or Albert) pointed out, the “hatred of Filipinos towards Spaniards is ingrained”, but in my experience that feeling usually occurs mainly among uneducated (or brain-washed) Filipinos living in the US.

    Generally speaking, in the Philippines there’s no such feeling, which speaks grandly of the Filipino character, who after having been fed so much hatred against anything Spanish, specially in schools where they only have access to the US anti-Spanish propaganda, they usually hold no bad feelings, and many actually take the time to uncover the truth, an unstoppable trend that is increasing exponentially in recent years thanks to the Internet.

    Not only Chavacano, Binisaya and Ilonggos (and Tagalog) speakers have positive attitudes towards learning Spanish. The whole of Asia is learning Spanish at a rate never seen before. Korea, for example, has 13 Universities that offer Spanish language Doctoral degrees, as opposed to the Philippines that has only one. And don’t be mistaken, the reason they’re learning Spanish is purely economic. It’s such a shame that the Philippines, whose population is best positioned to take advantage of the trans-Pacific trade, is going to miss that boat due to that stupid ingrained hatred, product of the outdated Propaganda from the Spain-US and Filipino-US Wars and that sadly is till alive in some Filipino institutions.

    Reply
  7. To get the way Filipinos think, search for Felipe M. de Leon, Jr. He basically agrees with your view of the Filipinos. They have very Austronesian values though they get influences from the West. To balance it, read Get Real Philippines. Beware of some anti-Spanish sentiments there, though.

    To get an objective view of the Spanish language in the Philippines, search for Prof. Florentino Rodao y García. He cited that disunty of the Spanish community in the Philippines during the early 1930′s to Haciendero Basques, Falangistas (pro-axis, allied to Italy) and Conservatives (those who want to keep the monarchy, pro-alied forces). Combine that with the Japanese Occupation, Anti-Hispanic propaganda by Americans (in which Hispanists used Anti-Americanism), allegiance of Franco’s Spain to the Axis (though neutral in theory) which harms the interest of USA and Philippines which were in the Allied Forces, and the bombing of Manila which destroyed Intramuros and caused poverty and mass migration of Spanish-Filipinos to Spain, USA, Australia and other countries.

    Read his papers called “Spanish Falange in the Philippines, 1936-1945″ and “Spanish Language in the Philippines, 1900-1940″ and you will see some of the pictures. This is for the owner of this blog and Guillermo Gomez Rivera.

    Reply
  8. Spain was indeed neutral during WWII. Had nor been neutral. Franco would have let German troops cross the Iberian Peninsula and join their forces in Africa, thus closing upon the Allies. It would have turned the War into a completely different scenario.

    After the invasion of the Philippines by the Japanese, Spain broke diplomatic relations with Japan, and even considered to enter the war against them, specially when it was known about the killings of Filipinos and the destruction of the Spanish Embassy in Manila.

    Not only that, Spain was the one country that saved more Jews from a certain death by using diplomatic channels and granting them access to a escape route. Between 40,000 to 75,000 were saved that way.

    You just keep echoing the same false and outdated anti-Spanish propaganda.
    That by the way is the same that accentuates the identity crisis among Filipinos and prevents them from grabbing the opportunity to build a better future by using the assets from their rich heritage.

    Reply
  9. As far as I read Prof. Rodao’s paper, he also cited Anti-Spanish propaganda from Americans which caused the decline of the language. Remember the statement, “Wherever am I, there is my own culture.”. Thomas Mann stated this. Therefore, foreigners of the same nationality and culture tend to stick together. This was supposedly the case to keep the language and culture together.

    I cannot say that Prof. Rodao is anti-Spanish since he came from Spain and as far as I see, his paper is objective.

    Reply
  10. I don’t see your point, really. That’s exactly what I said, that the US occupation forces did all they could to eradicate the Spanish language.

    In any case, for your information, the Spanish language is the second most widely spoken by number of native speakers,only second to Chinese and ahead of English, so it is not only far from dead, but it extends its influence as time passes by, in all continents.

    And if the educational institutions in the Philippines fail to acknowledge that trend, they are going to miss a huge opportunity to act as a bridge between the West of Asia and America.

    Rest assured that neither the Chinese, Korean or Japanese will fail to take advantage of that trans-Pacific trade, that’s why they are studying Spanish in hordes.

    Reply
  11. The difference between East Asia and the Philippines is huge, despite the geographical proximity.

    http://www.paclas.org.ph/PAPERS/Zialcita.pdf

    This paper by Zialcita has been attempting to balance the Asian-Pacific Islander and the Hispanic view.

    http://www.diprriihd.ehu.es/revistadoctorado/10/Sayoc10.pdf

    This paper talks about rekindling Hispano-Filipino ties. The paper claims that the Latin culture has been a veneer on the Native Austronesian culture. However, this could have been a good position for the Philippines.

    Instead of Manila claiming to be a center of Latin Culture in Asia, it was Seoul. Malaysia is aiming high for its Latin American Culture center. We haven’t strategized. In this case, Spanish presence might just become a mere fact of history.

    The creed of the Filipino might as well be such (no offense intended):

    I’m a Filipino, I’m an Austronesian.
    I acknowledge that we had trade and culture before the Westerners came.
    I acknowledge that by virtue of language and culture, the Indonesian, Malagash, Malays, and Pacific Islanders belong to the same stock, therefore they are our real brothers.
    I acknowledge that the Indian, Arab, Chinese and Japanese have influence in our culture for they are close enough to our culture.
    I acknowledge that the Western outsiders like the Americans and Spaniards gave some influence to us.
    Hasten our reclamation to our old culture.
    Hasten to reconnect to our true brothers.
    I’m a Filipino, I’m an Austronesian.
    I am beholden to no other race and culture but to my own Austronesian people.
    (for a more dangerous effect, add this phrase: “Our race is the master of this land.”)

    Reply
  12. Your “race” is the result of the crossing of many other races. Unless you are a Negrito, your “race” is the one that displaced the original inhabitants of the Philippine Islands.

    Ah, and when you list all those cultures and races that according to you “own” the land, don’t forget to include your “brothers” from Africa. Funny how you mention the Japanese but not the people from Madagascar?

    You should educate yourself a little before voicing out your racist creeds.
    Perhaps this map below may be of help:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Migraciones_austronesias.png

    Reply
  13. The creed was meant to be a little sarcastic. Not many Filipinos will really believe in that. But I’m afraid that if a racist Austronesianist who exactly follows this creed takes over our land and weed out all the guys who had white ancestors, not much will remain of the Philippines.

    BTW, I mentioned the Malagash of Madagascar, who are related to the Baritos of Borneo.

    Belwood’s “Out of Taiwan” theory is based on language, but look at another theory of Solheim’s “Nusantao (fr. Javanese “Nusantara” and Philippine Languages “tao”)” theory, which is based on material culture.

    Reply
  14. The article is very informative. It helped me a lot – as sort of adding knowledge about our history. I am actually looking for the qualities of Thomasites as teachers but this article appeared to me. It’s good.

    Reply

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